TINETTI, Mary E. Preventing falls in elderly persons. The New England Journal of Medicine, Massachusetts, v. 348, n. 1, p. 42-9, 2 Jan. 2003.
More than one third of persons 65 years of age or older fall each year, and in half of such cases the falls are recurrent. Approximately 1 in 10 falls results in a serous injury, such as hip fracture, other fracture, subdural hematoma, other serious soft tissue injury, or head injury. Falls account for approximately 10 percent of visits to the emergency department and 6 percent of urgent hospitalizations among elderly persons. Independently of other health conditions, falls are associated with restricted mobility; a decline in the ability to carry out activities such as dressing, bathing, shopping, or housekeeping; and an increased risk of placement in a nursing home. The risk of falling increased in a cohort of elderly persons living in the community, for example, from 8 percent among those with no risk factors to 78 percent among those with four or more risk factors.