REBOUÇAS, Poliana; FALCÃO, Ila R.; BARRETO, Mauricio L.. Social inequalities and their impact on children’s health: a current and global perspective. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio de Janeiro), Porto Alegre, [online], v. 98, supl. 1, p. 55-65, 2022. Disponível em Scielo

Objective: To describe the consequences of social inequalities on children’s health as a global and persistent problem, demonstrating its historical and structural roots in different societies. Data sources: Relevant articles in the PubMed/MEDLINE database, in addition to those found in a manual search and in the bibliographic references of selected studies and consultation to the websites of international organizations to obtain relevant data and documents. Data synthesis: To understand how inequities affect health, it is necessary to know the unequal distribution of their social determinants among population groups. In the case of children, the parental pathway of determinants is central. The non-equitable way in which many families or social groups live, determined by social and economic inequalities, produces unequal health outcomes, particularly for children. This is observed between and within countries. Children from the most vulnerable population groups consistently have worse health conditions. Interventions aimed at children’s health must go beyond care and act in an integrated manner on poverty and on social and economic inequalities, aiming to end systematic and unfair differences. Conclusions: Despite the considerable advances observed in children’s health in recent decades at a global level, the inequalities measured by different indicators show that they persist. This scenario deserves attention from researchers and decision-makers, especially in the context of the global health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has further intensified the situation of vulnerability and social inequalities in health around the world.