URRUTIA-PEREIRA, Marilyn; GUIDOS-FOGELBACH, Guillermo; SOLE, Dirceu. Climate changes, air pollution and allergic diseases in childhood and adolescence. Jornal de Pediatria (Rio de Janeiro), Porto Alegre, [online], v. 98, supl. 1, p. 47-54, 2022. Disponível em Scielo

Objective: To analyze the impacts of climate change on the development of immature respiratory and immune systems in children. Source of data: The authors of the present study performed a non-systematic review of English, Spanish, and Portuguese articles published in the last five years in databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO. The terms used were air pollution OR climate changes OR smoke, AND children OR health. Synthesis of data: The increase in the prevalence of some diseases, such as allergic ones, is attributed to the interactions between genetic potential and the environment. However, disordered growth combined with inadequate waste management has caused problems for the planet, such as heatwaves, droughts, forest fires, increased storms and floods, interference in food crops and their nutritional values, changes in the infectious disease pattern, and air pollution resulting from the continuous use of fossil fuels. Children, beings still in the development stage with immature respiratory and immune systems, are the primary victims of the climate crisis. Conclusions: The authors documented that prenatal and postnatal exposure to ambient air pollutants will accelerate or worsen the morbidity and mortality of many health conditions, including allergic diseases. Ambient air pollutants change the microbiota, interfere with the immune response, and take direct action on the skin and respiratory epithelium, which facilitates the penetration of allergens. Understanding how the children and adolescent health and well-being are affected by climate change is an urgent matter.