BARBOSA, Marcelo dos Santos et al. Epidemiological study in Brazilian women highlights that syphilis remains a public health problem. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, São Paulo, [online], v. 63, e4, 2021. Disponível em Scielo 

Syphilis, an infectious disease considered a global public health concern, can cause stillbirths and neonatal deaths. This highlights the importance of continuous surveillance studies among women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the prevalence and risk factors associated with Treponema pallidum infection in women assisted by primary health care units in Dourados, a city located in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, which borders Paraguay. A questionnaire was applied to a population-based sample, blood samples were collected for syphilis testing and multivariable analyses were performed to screen associations with T. pallidum infection. The prevalence of T. pallidum infection was 6.04%. Bivariate analysis showed that women referring multiple sexual partners (c2: 6.97 [p=0.014]), income less 2 minimal wages (c2: 15.93 [p=0.003]), who did not have high school (c2: 12.64 [p=0.005]), and reporting history of STIs (c2: 7.30 [p=0.018]) are more likely to have syphilis. In the multivariate analysis, a highest prevalence ratio was observed in women with income less than 2 minimal wages (PR: 0.96 [95% CI: 0.85 – 0.97]), and who did not have high school (PR: 0.94 [95% CI: 0.90 – 0.98]). In addition, 80% of the women reported irregular use of condoms and 63.89% declared having sexual intercourses with multiple partners, which creates more opportunities for the transmission of the infection. These results highlight the need for healthcare systems to implement initiatives to monitor syphilis screening and the commitment of patients and their sexual partners to the treatment in order to achieve a decrease of new cases.